Elbow joint effusion - recognising an elbow joint effusion on a lateral radiograph is an essential clinical skill. The key is to detect abnormal displacement of the fat pads around the distal humerus and in particular the sail sign. In adults a radial head fracture is the most common cause of an effusion, while in children a supracondylar fracture is most common. This short video tutorial is courtesy of the RadiologyChannel.
CRITOE - the important mnemonic used to remember the names and order of appearance of the six elbow ossification centers. Elbow trauma is common in childhood and knowing CRITOE can be critical to detecting important pathology. This video tutorial includes two abnormal teaching cases which start at 3:31.
C - capitellum : 1 year
R - radial head : 3 years
I - internal (medial) epicondyle : 5 years
T - trochlea : 7 years
O - olecranon : 9 years
E - external (lateral) epicondyle : 11 years
Arcuate sign - a subtle but important avulsion fracture of the proximal fibula at the site of arcuate ligament complex insertion. It is associated with cruciate ligament injury in around 90% of cases and represents an unstable posterolateral corner injury. When detected, the arcuate sign should prompt further evaluation with MRI and referral to an orthopaedic surgeon.