Pulmonary emphysema refers to destruction of alveolar spaces without fibrosis and occurs in several patterns. Centrilobular emphysema develops at the centre of the secondary pulmonary lobule and is the most common form seen in smokers. Panlobular emphysema refers to alveolar destruction throughout the secondary pulmonary lobule and is typical of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Paraseptal emphysema occurs along the interlobular septae and particularly the pleural margin. Often all patterns can be seen in the same lung, as with this HRCT example.
READ MORE: http://ift.tt/NeekeF
Holly leaf sign - refers to the typical chest radiograph appearance of calcified pleural plaques. The well-defined but irregular thickened edges simulate the appearance of a holly leaf. ‘Geographic density’ is another common term used to describe their appearance. Pleural plaques are the most common form of asbestos related disease.
A MERRY CHRISTMAS TO YOU ALL from the team at Radiopaedia.org
Golden S sign - a chest radiograph sign of right upper lobe collapse due to an obstructing central mass. The margin of the collapsed upper lobe forms a reverse S shape (blue line) as the peripheral lung collapses with a concave outline while the more central lung maintains a convex margin around the mass. The sign is highly suggestive of primary lung cancer and should prompt further investigation with CT.
Garland triad - a chest radiograph sign of sarcoidosis. It refers to a triad of lymph node enlargement; right paratracheal, right hilar and left hilar. This pattern of nodal enlargement, also known as the 1-2-3 sign, is not typical of lung caner or lymphoma which are other common causes of lymphadenopathy on chest xray. This patient also had lung parenchymal involvement with predominantly perihilar opacity simulating pulmonary oedema.