Polycystic ovaries - an important description of ovarian morphology on ultrasound which forms one of the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome; the others being oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism. It is defined by the presence of many small follicles (12 or more less than 10mm in diameter) or by an ovarian volume greater than 10ml. This later criterion means that a ‘polycystic ovary’ may in fact contain no follicles! When present, the follicles are typically peripheral with a ‘sting of pearls’ appearance.
Puff of smoke sign - describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moya moya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arterial networks evolving from the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. When viewed angiographically, the abnormal collaterals simulate smoke emanating away from the major arteries.
Seurat spleen - a ‘spotted’ angiographic appearance of the spleen following blunt trauma due to multiple small pseudoaneurysms. The tiny foci of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation form a likeness to the artwork of French impressionist Georges Seurat (1859 - 1891) who used a pointillistic technique to create images out of dots. Pictured is ‘Grande Jatte’ by Georges Seurat, painted in 1888.
Shepherd’s crook deformity - refers to a distinctive abnormal contour of the proximal femur in the setting of fibrous dysplasia. As the bone deforms the angle made between the neck of the femur and the femoral shaft decreases (coxa vara) and the bone becomes rounded simulating the appearance of a shepherd’s crook, a stick with a C-shaped end carried by shepherd’s particularly common in biblical times.